A. Disturbance in the normal fluency and time patterning of speech (inappropriate for the individual's age), characterized by frequent occurrences of one or more of the following:
(1) sound and syllable repetitions
(2) sound prolongations
(4) broken words (e.g., pauses within a word)
(5) audible or silent blocking (filled or unfilled pauses in speech)
(6) circumlocutions (word substitutions to avoid problematic words)
(7) words produced with an excess of physical tension
(8) monosyllabic whole-word repetitions (e.g., "I-I-I-I see him")
B. The disturbance in fluency interferes with academic or occupational achievement or with social communication.
C. If a speech-motor or sensory deficit is present, the speech difficulties are in excess of those usually associated with these problems.
Stuttering disorder is all about the way someone speaks. Something interrupts the normal speech pattern or timing to throw off the normal sound. This breaking of the normal speech pattern can be in the form of repetitions, interjections, broken words, and more.
The cause of stuttering disorder is not known. There are two main types of stuttering and causes, neurogenic and developmental.
Developmental stuttering’s exact cause is not known, however a combination of environment and genetics play a role. A leading theory suggests that the child’s mind, when learning language, is not able to keep up with the verbal demands of the individual.
Neurogenic stuttering occurs with brain damage, such as with a stroke or traumatic brain injury.
Psychotherapy to reduce stress and overcome unwanted symptoms is the primary treatment for stuttering disorder, however, medication evaluations are very important to rule out medical issues.